- Typical geoelectrical surface electrode array on the surface of the ground. Sensitivity density for the Wenner-alpha configuration is shown, along with the electric potential.
- 3D compaction of an oil reservoir brought about by pumping, coupling Darcy’s law to displacements brought about through poroelasticity.
- Flow in a block of porous media with a fracture where flow in the fracture is much faster than in the rest of the porous media. The modeling approach uses internal boundaries for modeling the free flow in 2D, while modeling the porous media flow in 3D using Darcy's law.
- Produced by scanning electron microscope images, the geometry of microscopic pores can be imported to COMSOL where the velocity and pressure distributions are then calculated. Model courtesy: Arturo Keller, University of California, Santa Barbara.
- Water on the ground moves into a relatively dry soil column and carries a chemical with it. As it moves through the variably saturated media, the chemical attaches to solid particles, slowing the solute transport relative to the water. Additionally the chemical concentrations decay from biodegradation in both the liquid and the solid phase. Shown is the saturation and pressure head contours.
- The degradation of a pesticide in an unsaturated soil. Shown are the biodegradation of the pesticide and intermediary products over time.
Physics Interfaces for Simulating Subsurface Flow
The Subsurface Flow Module features a number of physics interfaces for the simulation of subsurface flow and processes dependent upon it:
Porous Media Flow
The core functionality of the Subsurface Flow Module is its ability to model flow in variably saturated and fully-saturated porous media. The physics interfaces are set up using terms like pressure and hydraulic heads, that are familiar to the engineer that models hydrology. In variably saturated flow, hydraulic properties change as fluids move through the medium, filling some pores and draining others. Richards’ equation is employed to model this type of flow, and the van Genuchten and Brooks and Corey formulations can be applied to take retention in the pores into account. Edit fields exist for the density, dynamic viscosity, saturated and residual liquid fraction, hydraulic conductivities, and storage models.
Saturated porous media flow can be modeled through either Darcy’s Law or Brinkman's extension to Darcy's Law, depending on the size of the pores involved. If the pore is such that viscous effects to the fluid flow can be ignored, then Darcy's Law can be used, and flow is described exclusively by the pressure variable. If the size of the pores are large enough that the fluid can impose momentum changes through shear effects, then the Brinkman equations are to be applied. They solve for the same variables as the Navier-Stokes equations, but include terms that consider the porosity of the media the fluid is flowing through.
The Fracture Flow interface also solves for pressure on internal (2D) boundaries within a 3D matrix, and is automatically coupled to the physics describing the porous media flow in the surrounding matrix. This approximation saves you from meshing the actual fractures and the computational resources this entails. If a fluid happens to flow from one medium to the other (and back) in the same model, all of the porous media physics are automatically coupled to descriptions of free flow within the Subsurface Flow Module.
Channels or large connected pores are also found underground and are better modeled using the equations for fluid flow. This also includes wells and the like in applications such as extracting oil. The Subsurface Flow Module supports two types of free-channel flow: laminar and creeping flow. The Laminar Flow interface solves the Navier-Stokes equations while the the Creeping Flow interface solves a modified version of this, neglecting the inertial term. Also referred to as Stokes Flow, Creeping flow is useful for flows with very low Reynolds numbers.
Material transport can be coupled to subsurface flow and can occur through convection and diffusion. Properties, like diffusion, can be described by equations dependent on the variables, such as concentration, or be made anisotropic.
The Solute Transport interface adds dispersion and retardation due to sorption as a transport mechanism. Dispersion considers the fact that solute transport often occurs in the direction of the flow, and the dispersion tensor is available to take this into account. Sorption describes the process when chemical species absorb and then desorb at differing rates to particles within the porous media. Its affect on the transfer of material is described using either a Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm, which are available in the interface, or through your own expression. Sorption also contributes to slowing the flow through the retardation factor. A factor for volatilization, or the dispersion of chemical species from the solute to the immobile gas phase, is also available for non-saturated flow. You can also enter your own equations to describe any reactions taking place during the material transport. The Solute Transport interface can be coupled to any appropriate physics interface in the CFD Module if you want to model two-phase flow and the solute it transports.
Heat transfer occurs through conduction, convection, and dispersion, and must take into account the different conductivities that occur between the solid and fluid phases. In many cases, the solid phase can be made up of differing materials with different conductivities, and there can also be a number of differing fluids. Mixing rules are provided for calculating the effective heat transfer properties in the Heat Transfer in Porous Media interface. This also contains expressions for heat dispersion due to the nature of the porous media, as well as a term for the background geothermal heating. Dispersion is caused by the tortuous path of the liquid in the porous medium, which would not be described if only the mean convective term was taken into account.
Compaction and subsidence modeling is enabled by a very powerful physics interface for poroelasticity. The Poroelasticity interface combines a transient formulation of Darcy’s law to a linear elastic solid mechanics of the porous media matrix. The poroelasticity coupling means that the fluid flow affects the compressibility of the porous medium, while changes in volumetric strains will in turn affect the momentum, material, and heat transport. This interface includes an expression of the stress tensor, as a function of the strain tensor and the Biot-Willis coefficient.
- Flow in variably saturated porous media through the use of Richards' equations
- Retention rates in variably saturated media through the van Genuchten, and Brooks and Corey formulations
- Flow in saturated porous media through Darcy's Law and the Brinkman equations
- Flow in free channels through the Navier-Stokes equations and Stokes Flow formulation
- Fluid flow in fractures
- Material transport through convection and diffusion
- Solute transport through convection, diffusion, and dispersion, while considering sorption and retardation factors
- Transport of diluted species in porous media and fractures
- Terms for entering geochemical reaction kinetics
- Heat transfer in solids and liquids through conduction and convection
- Heat transfer through porous media considering differing conductivities between the phases, mixture models for conductivities within the phases, convection and thermal diffusion
- Term for background geothermal heating
- Poroelastic compaction & subsidence analyses
- Estuary and riparian analyses – flow, advection, and diffusion
- Gas storage, remediation and sequestration
- Mechanical and gravity dewatering of porous and fibrous materials
- Petroleum engineering
- Pollutant plume analyses in subsurface, and topsoil flows
- Shallow water flows and sediment transport
- Water table analyses and saline intrusion into groundwater
- Well head analyses
- Groundwater flow
Pumping and Injecting from a Single Borehole
Prof. Martin Sauter, Ph.D Student Yulan Jin, and Assoc. Prof. Ekkehard Holzbecher Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany
Professor Dr. Martin Sauter leads a group at the University of Göttingen in research on hydrogeology. Cooperating with Hölscher Wasserbau, a leading German dewatering company, the group is studying düsensauginfiltration (DSI), which is a technique for lowering groundwater levels at mining or construction sites. Traditionally, dewatering involves ...
Multiphysics Simulations Help Track Underground Fluid Movements
A. Haas, H. Mahardika, M. Karaoulis, and A. Revil Colorado School of Mines, USA
Combining acoustic and electromagnetic analyses helps scientists to more efficiently measure and survey subterranean regions. Acoustic waves can travel long distances, but have limitations when it comes to providing details about formation properties, and cannot be used to identify the liquids flowing through them. Electromagnetic waves do not ...
The ability to describe how fluids funnel into tiny perforations oriented about a wellbore is the subject of a rapidly growing number of analyses. In that the perforations are isolated piercings as opposed to rings, the flow field is not suited for axisymmetric analyses — fully 3D simulations are required. This application allows you to ...
This example demonstrates how to model a phase change and predict its impact on a heat transfer analysis. When a material changes phase, for instance from solid to liquid, energy is added to the solid. Instead of creating a temperature rise, the energy alters the material’s molecular structure. Equations for the latent heat of phase changes ...
The Poroelasticity interface couples Darcy's law and solid mechanics to assess deformation of porous media that results from fluid withdrawals. The model builds on top of the Terzaghi Compaction example. Results from Terzaghi compaction and Biot poroelasticity analyses are compared to each other and are a good match to published analyses.
Failure of a Multilateral Well
Multilateral wells—those with multiple legs that branch off from a single well—can produce oil efficiently because the legs can tap multiple productive zones and navigate around impermeable ones. Unfortunately, drilling engineers must often mechanically stabilize multilateral wells with a liner or casing, which can cost millions of dollars. ...
This is a tutorial model of the coupling between flow of a fluid in an open channel and a porous block attached to one of the channel walls. The flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation in the free region and a Forchheimer-corrected version of the Brinkman equations in the porous region.
Buoyancy Flow with Darcy's Law — The Elder Problem
Density variations can initiate flow even in a still fluid. In earth systems, density variations can arise from naturally occurring salts, subsurface temperature changes, or migrating pollution. This buoyant or density-driven flow factors into fluid movement in salt-lake systems, saline-disposal basins, dense contaminant and leachate plumes, and ...
Pesticide Transport and Reaction in Soil
Aldicarb is a commercial pesticide, used on a variety of crops, including cotton, fruits, potatoes, and beans. This arises in the possibility that the general population may be exposed to aldicarb through the ingestion of contaminated water and foods. This example looks at the degradation kinetics of aldicarb and its toxic by-products, ...
Variably Saturated Flow and Transport — Sorbing Solute
In this example water ponded in a ring on the ground moves into a relatively dry soil column and carries a chemical with it. As it moves through the variably saturated soil column, the chemical attaches to solid particles, slowing the solute transport relative to the water. Additionally the chemical concentrations decay from biodegradation in ...
This non-conventional model of porous media flow utilizes creeping (Stokes) flow in the interstices of a porous media. The model comes from the pore-scale flow experiments conducted by Arturo Keller, Maria Auset, and Sanya Sirivithayapakorn of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The geometry used in the model was produced by scanning ...
Free Convection in a Porous Medium
This example treats the modeling of sub-surface flow where free convection in porous media is analyzed. The results are compared with published literature in the field. The model couples the momentum balance to an energy balance through an equation, dependent on temperature, being directly typed into the source term for the momentum balance. ...
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